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Juncus Smut

Scientific Name
Heterotolyposporium piluliforme
Scientific Author
(Berk.) Vánky
Basidiomycota, Ustilaginomycetes, Ustilaginales, Cintractiaceae
Native Australian Species

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Diagnostic Images

Scanning Electron Micrograph
Heterotolyposporium piluliforme on Juncus planifolius - BRIP 26368. Scale bar = 10 µm.
Desley Tree DEEDI
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Diagnostic Images (4)
Diagnostic Notes
Sori exposed, globose or elongate, comprising the basal part of the capsule or, more commonly, the entire capsule and all central floral organs, occasionally also the basal part of the perianth segments or the whole flower. In the inflorescence 1 or several, more rarely all flowers may be destroyed and transformed into globose ovoid or lobed bodies 1–2 mm wide or up to 3 mm by confluence, rather compact, with a powdery surface, grey or greyish black due to the mixture of dark spore balls and solitary hyaline spores. Sori rarely around the basal part of a branch in the inflorescence, elongate, 5–10 mm long. Dark spores solitary or agglutinated in balls.

Spore balls rather permanent, subglobose, ovoid, irregular or elongate, 20–50 × 15–30 µm, dark reddish brown to opaque, including 2–10 (–15) spores.

Pigmented spores subglobose, ellipsoidal or hemiglobose, usually irregular with flattened contact sides, 12–20 × 8–15 µm, dark reddish brown; wall uneven, 1–3 µm thick, thickest at the angles and on the free surface; contact sides smooth; free surface irregularly and incompletely densely verrucose-reticulate.

Unpigmented spores globose (6.5–11.0 µm diam.), subglobose, ovoid to ellipsoidal (6.5–15.0 × 6.5–11.0 µm); wall even, 0.5–1.0 µm thick, in LM smooth, in SEM rough due to low warts.

Spore germination: Colourless spores on water agar, giving rise to shorter 1-celled or longer septate basidia producing ovoid or subcylindrical basidiospores and hyphae. On MYP septate basidia were produced with abundant basidiospores, hyphae and septate basidium-like structures. Germination of pigmented spores resulting in 3–7-celled basidia 50–70 × 3–4 µm. Basidial cells often fusing in pairs and developing small ovoid to large subcylindrical basidiospores 4–8 × 2.0–2.5 µm to 15–35 × 3.5–6.0 µm and also slender septate branched hyphae.
More Information
Specimen Contact
Roger Shivas
Roger Shivas
02/12/2010 05:03 AEST
Last Updated
24/02/2012 15:49 AEST
Roger Shivas (2010) Juncus Smut (Heterotolyposporium piluliforme ) Updated on 2/24/2012 3:49:28 PM Available online: PaDIL -
Image Use
Free for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License