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Cottony Citrus Scale

Scientific Name
Pulvinaria polygonata
Scientific Author
Cockerell
Taxonomy
(Hemiptera: Coccidae)
Pest Status
0 Unknown
Status
0 NZ - Unknown
Reliability
High
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Diagnostic Notes
Description from Williams & Watson (1990)

Adult female, in life, described by Green (1909) as 'moderately convex above, with a more or less well marked carina. Colour pale olivaceous above, the dorsum minutely and closely studded with brown dots'.

Slide-mounted specimens narrowly to broadly oval, up to 5.2 mm long; dorsal surface membranous to moderately sclerotised, with large clear areas, tessellated except around margins. Antennae 380-470 µm long, each with 8 segments. Legs well developed, each tibia and tarsus well articulated, with a strongly-developed articulatory sclerosis; claws stout, each with a pair of widely­expanded digitules of equal length. Anal plates triangular, together quadrate, each plate with 4 apical setae present. Stigmatic clefts well developed, each with 4 or 5 bluntly pointed stigmatic setae, of different lengths, but always 1 longer than others; very rarely, a group of 3 stigmatic setae present at one cleft. Marginal setae slender, usually about 28-44 µm long, shorter than longest stigmatic setae, mostly bluntly pointed, but always some branched or with tip frayed or expanded.

Dorsal setae about 6 µm long, pointed, spinelike, scattered. Submarginal tubercles usually 4-8. Preopercular pores present in an elongate group as far forward as a point opposite 3rd abdominal segments on venter. Minute pores and small tubular ducts present in more or less equal numbers, with a duct or pore associated with each areolation, each tubular duct being about 10 µm long.

Ventral surface with minute pointed setae present; longer setae present in median areas, between procoxae and mouthparts, and between antennal bases and clypeolabral shield. Multilocular disc pores each usually with 8 loculi, numerous in vulvar area and present in transverse rows on a few preceding segments and in submedian groups as far forward as mesothorax, where they are situated between the mesocoxae and metathoracic spiracles. Quinquelocular pores present in stigmatic furrows in wide bands, 3 or 4 pores wide. Microducts fairly numerous in a submarginal zone and scattered in median areas. Tubular ducts numerous, about 4 types present, but in some areas they are graded; normally a small type, with a thin filament, numerous in a submarginal to submedian zone on inner side of microduct zone; a second type, each with a thick filament with almost parallel sides, about same width and length as duct, usually present on head between antennal bases and clypeolabral shield; a third type, similar to those on head but with the filament thinner near the join with the main duct and slightly longer than the duct, situated in median areas of thorax and abdomen; and the fourth type, each with thick filament conspicuously longer than the duct, usually present in submedian areas. Occasionally single ducts of any one type may be mingled with the others.

Biology

Life history and control in Taiwan (Takahashi, 1939b), and in India (Chatterji & Datta, 1974). Ali recorded (as P. cellulosa five generations per year on Mango in Bihar, India; overwintering in the fifth generation. Smith et al. (1997) reported 2-3 generations per year in Queensland, Australia.

Structure

See colour photograph in Kawai (1980, Figs. 6.25, a,b).

Foe

HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus yoshidae.

General Remarks

Description and illustration of adult female by Tao et al. (1983), Williams & Watson (1990) and by Tang (1991).

Keys

Tanaka et al. 2006: 180 (female); Tang 1991: 226 (female); Williams & Watson 1990: 148 (female); Tao et al. 1983: 87 (female); Kawai 1980: 148-150 (female); Borchsenius 1957: 205 (female); Green 1909a: 262 (female).

More Information
Specimen Contact
New Zealand Arthropod Collection
Author
Crosby, T.K.
Created
04/07/2013 10:41 AEST
Last Updated
17/04/2014 03:34 AEST
Citation
Crosby, T.K. (2013) Cottony Citrus Scale (Pulvinaria polygonata) Updated on 4/17/2014 3:34:18 AM Available online: PaDIL - http://www.padil.gov.au.
Image Use
Free for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License

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