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Eastern peach X disease

Scientific Name
Western X-disease phytoplasma
Scientific Author
(Phytoplasma: Acholeplasmatales: Candidatus: 16SrIII X-disease group)

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Gilmer RM, Blodgett EC. 1976. X-disease. In: Virus diseases and non-infectious disorders of stone fruits in North America. USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 437, pp. 145-155. United States Department of Agriculture, USA.

Gilmer RM, Palmiter DH, Schaefers GA, McEwen FL. 1966. Leafhopper transmission of X-disease virus of stone fruits in New York. New York State Agriculture Experimental Station Bulletin 813, 1-22.

Kirkpatrick BC. 1991. Mycoplasma like organisms – plant and invertebrate pathogens, Chapter 229, p. 4050-4067. In: Balows A, Truper HG, Dworkin M, Harder W and Schleifer KH (eds.)The prokaryotes Volume IV, 2nd Ed.. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Kirkpatrick, B.C.; Uyemoto, J.K.; Purcell, A.H. (1995) X-disease. In: Compendium of stone fruit diseases. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, USA.

Lukens RJ, Miller PM, Walton GS, Hitchcock SW. 1971. Incidence of X-disease of peach and eradication of chokecherry. Plant Disease Reporter 55, 645-647.

McClure MS. 1980. Role of wild host plants in the feeding, oviposition, and dispersal of Scaphytopius acutus (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of peach X-disease. Environmental Entomology 9, 283-292.

McCoy RE. 1984. Mycoplasma-like organisms of Plants and invertebrates. In: Krieg NR and Holt JG (eds). Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology volume 1 pp792 – 793,. William and Wilkins, Baltimore/London.

Nemeth M. 1986. Virus, Mycoplasma and Rickettsia Diseases of Fruit Trees, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands

Uyemoto JK. 1989. Union aberration of sweet cherry on Prunus mahaleb rootstock associated with X disease. Plant Disease 73, 899-902.

Uyemoto JK, Kirkpatrick BC, Cummins JN. 1991. Susceptibility of selected cherry clones and related species to Western X-disease. HortScience 26, 1510-1511.

Rosenberger DA, Jones AL. 1977. Spread of X-disease in Michigan peach orchards. Plant Disease Reporter 61, 830-834.

Rosenberger DA, Jones AL. 1978. Leafhopper vectors of the peach X-disease pathogen and seasonal transmission from chokecherry. Phytopathology 68, 782-790.

Seemüller E, Marcone E, Lauer U, Ragozzino A, Göschl M. 1998. Current status of molecular classifiation of the phytoplasmas. Journal of Plant Pathology 80, 3-26.

Suslow KG, Purcell AH. 1982. Seasonal transmission of the X-disease agent from cherry by the leafhopper vector Colladonus montanus. Plant Disease 66, 28-31.

Wolfe HR. 1955. Transmission of the western X-disease virus by the leafhopper, Colladonus montanus. Plant Disease 39, 298-299.


Many thanks to Jerry Uyemoto, Bill Howell and and Prof. Alexander H. Purcell for providing pictures for this disease factsheet.