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Apple Mussel Scale

Scientific Name
Lepidosaphes ulmi
Scientific Author
(Linnaeus, 1758)
(Hemiptera: Diaspididae)
Pest Status
0 Unknown
0 Unknown
NZ - Exotic
NZ - Exotic

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Diagnostic Images

Abdomen - Female
Slide mounted
Rosa Henderson Landcare Research
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Diagnostic Images (7)
Other Images (2)
Diagnostic Notes
Source: Henderson (2011) [See Web Links tab]

Live Appearance and Habitat

Female scale cover elongate mussel shell-shaped, rich mahogany brown with a pale section at posterior end, terminal exuvia more golden-brown; female body pale with yellow pygidium, eggs white. On stems, leaves, and fruit of host plants, often in massed populations.


Adult female, body elongate, widest at abdomen with well developed prepygidial lobes; length 0.32–1.42 mm, width 0.5–0.69 mm. Median lobes (L1) about as wide as long, notched each side, with short paraphyses each side; 1 pair of setae and 1 pair of gland spines in medial space; L2 bilobed, medial lobule 2 times as wide as lateral lobule and with a small notch; L3 short, wide, dentate. Gland spines between lobes. 6 pairs of marginal macroducts.

Dorsal ducts of 1 size, smaller than marginal macroducts, numerous on submedial pygidium VI and VII and numerous on submedian-submargin of V to III then on submargin as far forward as metathorax. With small dorsal bosses on submedian abdomen II to VI. With a stout spine on margin at angle between abdominal segments II to IV. Anal opening round, 15 µm, as long as wide, positioned near anterior of pygidium, 180–195 µm from posterior margin.

Ventral ducts similar to dorsal ducts present submarginally on prepygidial segment III–I and more numerous on thorax, with a band extending across body between posterior spiracles. Microducts scattered on submargins and submedian of abdomen and head. Gland spines on margins of free abdominal lobes reducing to gland tubercles to segment I. Antenna with 1 or 2 long setae. Anterior spiracles each with 5–6 trilocular pores; posterior spiracles without pores. Perivulvar pores in 5 moderately elongate groups. Vulva position posterior to that of anal opening, about middle of pygidium, 100–115 µm from posterior margin.

Source: [ScaleNet](


Miller & Davidson (2005). Ghabbour 2001: 78 (first instar) [Key to first-instar nymphs of three species of Lepidosaphes]; Gill 1997: 168 (female) [Key to California species of Lepidosaphes]; Kosztarab 1996: 517 (female) [Key to species of Northeastern North American Lepidosaphes]; Danzig 1993: 247 (female) [Key to species of Lepidosaphes]; Kosztarab & Kozár 1988: 347 (female) [Key to species of Lepidosaphes]; Danzig 1986a: 355 (female) [as Lepidosaphes (Lepidosaphes) ulmi; Key to species of Lepidosaphes]; Chou 1982: 156 (female) [Key to Chinese species of Lepidosaphes]; Paik 1978: 338 (female) [Key to species of Lepidosaphes]; McDaniel 1972a: 323 (female) [Key to the Texas species of the genus Lepidosaphes]; Danzig 1971d: 841 (female) [Key to species of the family Diaspididae]; Takagi 1960: 93 (female) [Key to species of Lepidosaphes]; Bustshik 1958: 185 (female) [Species of the tribe Diaspidini]; Ezzat 1958: 245 (female) [as Lepidosaphes ulmi; Key to adult female Lepidosaphes]; Gómez-Menor Ortega 1956: 73 (female) [as Lepidosaphes ulmi v. oleae; Key to species of Lepidosaphes of Spain]; McKenzie 1956: 32 (female) [Key to species of Lepidosaphes]; Takahashi 1955e: 69 (female) [Key to species of Lepidosaphes]; Balachowsky 1954e: 33 (female) [Tableau de détermination des espèces du g. Lepidosaphes]; Ferris 1942: SIV-446:56 (female) [Key to species of Lepidosaphes]; Borchsenius 1938: 138 (female) [Key to species of Lepidosaphes in the Fareastern Region of the SSSR]; Kuwana 1925a: 4 (female) [Key to species of Lepidosaphes]; Britton 1923: 378 (female) [Key to Connecticut species of Lepidosaphes]; Leonardi 1903: 29 (female) [as Mytilaspis nivea M. pomorum; Key to species of Mytilaspis]; Cockerell 1899f: 14 (female) [as Mytilaspis pomorum; Australian species of Mytilaspis].
More Information
Specimen Contact
New Zealand Arthropod Collection
Henderson, R. C. & Crosby, T. K.
27/05/2011 02:11 AEST
Last Updated
10/04/2014 01:32 AEST
Henderson, R. C. & Crosby, T. K. (2011) Apple Mussel Scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi ) Updated on 4/10/2014 1:32:01 AM Available online: PaDIL -
Image Use
Free for use under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)