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Florida Wax Scale

Scientific Name
Ceroplastes floridensis
Scientific Author
(Hemiptera: Coccidae)
Pest Status
0 Unknown
0 Unknown
0 NZ - Unknown
0 NZ - Unknown

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Diagnostic Images

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Diagnostic Images (6)
Diagnostic Notes
Description from Williams & Watson (1990)

Slide-mounted specimens of adult female oval, caudal process short, conical and heavily sclerotised; anal cleft short, normally about 1/8th length of body. Antennae usually each with 6 segments, rarely with 7. Legs well developed, without tibio-tarsal articulatory scleroses. Stigmatic clefts poorly developed, each with 20-33 lanceolate spine-like setae in more or less single rows on margins. Marginal setae short and flagellate, always with about 8-10 between each anterior and posterior group of stigmatic setae.

Dorsal surface with minute truncate-conical setae and pores that are bilocular, trilocular and quadrilocular, the trilocular pores oval and triangular. With 1 cephalic and 6 lateral clear areas devoid of pores and setae.

Ventral surface with minute flagellate setae and 2 pairs of long setae on inner side of each antennal base. Multilocular disc pores present in vulvar region, across abdominal segments, and near coxae. Cruciform pores scattered. Quinquelocular pores in stigmatic furrows present in bands of 3 or 4 rows wide. Tubular ducts present around submargins except between antennae, each duct with a short filament but this widely expanded and bulbous, often wider than the duct.


Balachowsky (1933d) studied and described the biology in southern France. Bodenheimer (1951b) discussed the biology and economic importance. Develops two annual generations on Citrus, in Israel (Ben-Dov, 1976d; Podoler et al., 1981), and in Greece (Argyriou & Kourmadas, 1980). Two generations per year develop in Queensland, Australia (Smith et al, 1997). Methods for laboratory rearing given by Ben-Dov (1970a). Population dynamics on Citrus in Israel studied by Podoler et al. (1981) and by Schneider et al. (1987a, 1987b). Yardeni (1987) and Yardeni & Rosen (1990) studied the wind dispersal of crawlers.


Colour photograph of adult female by Kawai (1980, Fig. 6.57), Hodgson (1994a), Carvalho & Aguiar (1997), Wong et al. (1999) and by Peronti et al. (2008).

Economic Importance & Control

A major citrus pest in Israel (Bodenheimer, 1951b; Ben-Dov, 1976d). A pest of many ornamentals in U.S.A. (Gimpel et al., 1974). Peleg & Gothilf (1981) and Eisa et al. (1990) studied the adverse effects of several IGR's on this pest. Peleg (1987) reported on resistance to commercial formulation of carabaryl in Israel. Yardeni and Shapira (1995) proposed and applied a control method of the scale by thinning its population using a nutritional spray of 4% potassium nitrate with 2% spray oil.

General Remarks

Description and illustration of adult female by De Lotto (1969b), Ezzat & Hussein (1969), Ben-Dov (1970b), Williams & Kosztarab (1972), Gimpel et al. (1974), Tao et al. (1983), Hamon & Williams (1984), Williams & Watson (1990), Tang (1991), Hodgson (1994a), Kosztarab (1996) and by Peronti et al. (2008).


HYMENOPTERA Aphelinidae: Coccophagus caridei Brethes, Coccophagus lycimnia (Walker), Coccophagus rusti Compere, Coccophagus scutellaris, Encarsia, Encyrtidae: Anicetus quintanai De Santis, Cheiloneurus gahani Dozier, Microterys nietneri (Motschulsky), Eulophidae: Aprostocetus toddaliae (Risbec), Tetrastichus, Tetrastichus ceroplastae (Girault), Pteromalidae: Scutellista cyanea Motschulsky.


Fetykó & Kozár 2012: 293 (female); Peronti {et al.} 2008: 142-144 (female); Hodges 2002b: 208 (female); Mori, Pellizzari & Tosi 2001: 42 (female); Kosztarab 1996: 325 (female); Pellizzari & Camporose 1994: 177 (female); Tang 1991: 304 (female); Williams & Watson 1990: 65 (female); Hamon & Williams 1984: 18 (female); Tao et al. 1983: 93 (female); Kawai 1980: 166 (female); Gimpel et al. 1974: 19 (female); Williams & Kosztarab 1972: 36 (female); Ezzat & Hussein 1969: 371 (female); Beardsley 1966: 480 (female); Borchsenius 1957: 451 (female); Green 1909a: 277 (female); Cockerell 1895: 8 (female).
More Information
Specimen Contact
New Zealand Arthropod Collection
Crosby, T.K.
24/06/2013 10:39 AEST
Last Updated
20/03/2014 19:45 AEST
Crosby, T.K. (2013) Florida Wax Scale (Ceroplastes floridensis ) Updated on 3/20/2014 7:45:05 PM Available online: PaDIL -
Image Use
Free for use under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)