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Citrus canker (canker A)

Scientific Name
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri
Scientific Author
(Hasse 1915) Vauterin et al. 1995
(Bacteria: Xanthomonadales)

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CABI/EPPO, 1998. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. Distribution Maps of Quarantine Pests for Europe No. 281. Wallingford, UK, CAB International.

Crop Protection Compendium 2005 Edition. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (citrus canker). CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (2005). Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. EPPO Bulletin 35(2): 289-294.

Gottwald TR & Graham JH (2000) Canker. in: Timmer LW, Garnsey SM & Graham JH Compendium of citrus diseases St. Paul, APS Press. p.5-7.

Gottwald TR, Graham JH & Schubert TS (2002) citrus Canker: the pathogen and its impact. Plant Health Progress. Available online at

Hailstones DL, Weinert MP, Smith MW, Ghalayini A, Gambley CF (2005) Evaluating potential alternate hosts of citrus canker. Proceedings of the 2nd International Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing Research Workshop, November 7-11, Orlando, Florida p71.

Hayward AC & Waterston JM (1964) Xanthomonas citri. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 11. (Commonwealth Mycological Institute: Kew, UK).

Schaad NW, Postnikova E, Lacy GH, Sechler A, Agarkova I, Stromberg PE, Stromberg VK & Vidaver AK (2005). Reclassification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri (ex Hasse 1915) Dye 1978 forms A, B/C/D, and E as X. smithii subsp. citri (ex Hasse) sp. nov. nom. rev. comb. nov., X. fuscans subsp. aurantifolii (ex Gabriel 1989) sp. nov. nom. rev. comb. nov., and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelo (ex Riker and Jones) Gabriel et al., 1989 sp. nov. nom. rev. comb. nov.; X. campestris pv. malvacearum (ex Smith 1901) Dye 1978 as X. smithii subsp. smithii nov. comb. nov. nom. nov.; X. campestris pv. alfalfae (ex Riker and Jones, 1935) Dye 1978 as X. alfalfae subsp. alfalfae (ex Riker et al., 1935) sp. nov. nom. rev.; and "var. fuscans" of X. campestris pv. phaseoli (ex Smith, 1987) Dye 1978 as X. fuscans subsp. fuscans sp. nov. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 28: 494-518.

Schubert TS, Rizvi SA, XiaoAn S, Gottwald TR, Graham JH & Dixon WN (2001) Meeting the challenge of eradicating citrus canker in Florida-again. Plant Disease 85: 340-356.

Schubert TS & Sun X (2003) Bacterial Citrus Canker. Plant Pathology Circular No. 377, 5 ed. Fl. Dept. of Agriculture & Cons. Svcs. Division of Plant Industry. Available online at:


The authors acknowledge Mr Grant Dobinson (DPI&F) for editing some pictures.