Your are here:

Citrus variegated chlorosis

Scientific Name
Xylella fastidiosa
Scientific Author
Wells et al.

Page menu options:


Almeida RPP, Mann R, Purcell AH (2004) Xylella fastidiosa cultivation on a minimal solid defined medium. Current Microbiology 48:368-372.

Alves E, Marucci CR, Lopes JRS, Leite B (2004). Leaf symptoms on plum, coffee and citrus and the relationship with the extent of xylem vessels colonized by Xylella fastidiosa. Journal of Phytopathology 152:291-297.

Beretta MJG & Leite Jr RP (2000) in Timmer LW, Garnsey SM & Graham JH (ed) Compendium of citrus diseases. St. Paul, APS Press. p.50-51.

Bextine BR, Miller TA (2004) Comparison of whole-tissue and xylem fluid collection techniques to detect Xylella fastidiosa in grapevine and oleander. Plant Disease 88:600-604.

Bradbury JF (1991) Xylella fastidiosa. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 105. (Commonwealth Mycological Institute: Kew, UK).

CABI/EPPO (1997). Xylella fastidiosa. Distribution maps of plant diseases No. 262. Wallingford, UK, CAB International.

Carbajal D, Morano KA, Morano LD (2004) Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy for direct detection of Xylella fastidiosa in xylem sap. Current Microbiology 49: 372-375.

Chang CJ, Garnier M, Zreik L, Rossetti V, Bové JM (1993). Culture and serological detection of the xylem-limited bacterium causing citrus variegated chlorosis and its identification as a strain of Xylella fastidiosa. Current Microbiology 27:137-142.

Ciapina LP, Carareto Alves LM, Lemos EGM (2004). A nested-PCR assay for detection of Xylella fastidiosa in citrus plants and sharpshooter leafhoppers. Journal of Applied Microbiology 96: 546-551.

Costa HS, Raetz E, Pinckard TR, Gispert C, Hernandez-Martinez R, Dumenyo CK, Cooksey DA (2004). Plant hosts of Xylella fastidiosa in and near Southern California vineyards. Plant Disease 88:1255-1261.

Crop Protection Compendium 2005 Edition. Xylella fastidiosa (Pierce's disease of grapevines). CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Davis MJ, French WJ, Schaad NW (1981) Axenic culture of the bacteria associated with phony disease of peach and plum leaf scald. Current Microbiology 6:309–314

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (2004). Diagnostic protocols for regulated pests: Xylella fastidiosa. EPPO Bulletin 34(2): 187-192.

Fatmi M, Damsteegt VD, Schaad NW (2005) A combined agar-absorption and BIO-PCR assay for rapid, sensitive detection of Xylella fastidiosa in grape and citrus. Plant Pathology 54:1-7.

Francis M, Lin H, Cabrera-La Rosa J, Doddapaneni H, Civerolo EL (2006) Genome-based PCR primers for specific and sensitive detection and quantification of Xylella fastidiosa. European Journal of Plant Pathology, in Press.

Freitag JH (1951). Host range of the Pierce’s disease virus of grapes as determined by insect transmission. Phytopathology 41:920-934.

Hopkins DL (1989) Xylella fastidiosa: xylem-limited bacterial pathogen of plants. Annual Review of Phytopathology 27: 271–290.

Hopkins DL and Adlerz WC (1988). Natural hosts of Xylella fastidiosa in Florida. Plant Disease 72:429-431.

Hopkins DL, Purcell AH (2002). Xylella fastidiosa: cause of Pierce's disease of grapevine and other emergent diseases. Plant Disease 86:1056-1066.

Krell RK, Perring TM, Farrar CA, Park YL, Gispert C (2006) Intraplant sampling of grapevines for Pierce's disease diagnosis. Plant Disease 90: 351-357.

Krivanek AF, Stevenson JF, Walker MA (2005) Development and comparison of symptom indices for quantifying grapevine resistance to Pierce's disease. Phytopathology 95:36-43.

Laranjeira FF, Amorim L, Bergamin Filho A, Aguilar-Vildoso CI (2002) Control of citrus diseases caused by fungi and bacteria. In: Zambolim L, Vale, FXR, Monteiro, AJA & Costa H (eds) Fruit diseases. v.1, Viçosa-MG, Brazil. p.141-245. (In Portuguese).

Lee RF, Beretta MJG, Hartung JH, Hooker ME, Derrick KS (1993). Citrus variegated chlorosis: confirmation of a Xylella fastidiosa as the causal agent. Summa Phytopathologica 19:123-125.

Li WB, Zhou CH, Pria Júnior WD, Teixeira DC, Miranda V


The authors acknowledge Jose Luis Ramirez and prof. Thomas A. Miller for courteously providing images. Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan acknowledges financial support from the “Consórcio Brasileiro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento do Café”.